The Bible: history, meaning, versions, books, verses, and much more

The Bible: history, meaning, versions, books, verses, and much more

The Bible has a large number of books whose content has been inspired by the Holy Spirit of God. It features many stories ranging from the creation of the world to the coming of Jesus Christ in the clouds. Learn more about the Bible in the next post.

The Bible

The Bible, according to religions such as Christianity and Judaism, has been considered as a group of books with specifically heavenly inspiration, which reveals the true will of God and allows the creation of firm ties between humanity and him. (See Article: The Power of Prayer )


The Bible is made up of writings that were at first separate archives, known as books, composed first in Hebrew, Aramaic, and also in Greek over an extremely long period of time, and later brought together to form the Old and New Testaments.

The writings that make up the Bible itself were composed approximately 1,000 years ago. The most established writings are found in the Book of Judges and in the alleged E sources, better known as Elohist customs, the J known as Yahwist convention.

We also find the version of the Torah better called the Pentateuch by Christians, dating from the tenth to eighth season of the two kingdoms before Christ. (See Article: The power of early morning prayer )

The ordinance of the Bible that we currently have was made by the primitive Church that in the Letters of Saint Ignatius of Antioch refers to the Church of Smyrna as Catholic, under the pontificate of Pope Saint Damasus I, this was possible in the Synod of Rome from the year 382, ​​and this form is what Jerome of Stridon converted into Latin.

This group is made up of 73 books, of these 46 components of the inclusive Old Testament, including 7 books currently called Deuterocanonical, such as: Tobit, Judith, First Book of Maccabees, Second Book of Maccabees, the Book of Wisdom, The Ecclesiasticus of Sírcida and Baruch and the remaining 27 that make up the New Testament.

After the Protestant shift, in the view that the standard had not been affirmed by an ecumenical board, it was finally characterized by methods for a narrow-minded revelation at the fourth session of the Council of Trent on April 8, 1546.

The doctrinal councils of Trent were not perceived or accepted by numerous Protestants, they arose from the 16th century, or by various categories related to Protestantism that arose from the 19th century. The group of standard Christian scriptural books is even more extensive than the Catholic Biblical ordinance and incorporates Psalm 151, the Manasseh Prayer, the Third Book of Ezra, and the Third Book of Maccabees.

Despite this, the Fourth Book of Ezra and the Fourth Book of Maccabees also appear as reference sections in numerous significant adaptations and publications of the Orthodox Christian Bible.

The Old Testament primarily recounts the clear story of the Hebrews and the New Testament about the life, death, and revival of Jesus, his message, and the historical background of the early Christians. The New Testament was written in the Koine Greek language.

In it, the Old Testament is regularly quoted in the Septuagint variant, the Greek interpretation of the Old Testament in Alexandria, specifically in Egypt, as early as the 3rd century BC. C. (See Article Psalm 91 a night prayer )

For the devout, the Bible is the expression of God, coming from heavenly motivation, even though its composition was carried out through chosen men who used their resources as obvious creators.

It is a prominently otherworldly work that is deciphered by devotees as God’s method of revealing Himself and showing His willingness to forgive humanity, despite their character and qualities.

For Christian followers, the Bible is the primary source of trust and principle in Christ. In the 16th century, the various developments of the Protestant Reformation began to find high mileage in philosophical exchanges and grew apart from each other.

Then, to reduce this problem, the so-called “single composition” guideline was characterized, which implies that the solitary Bible can be seen as a rema of Christian teaching. (See Article Prayers for spiritual warfare )

For the Catholic Church, despite the Bible, the customs, the lessons of the Fathers of the Church or the students of the witnesses and the elections that come out of the Councils are equally doctrinal.

This disparity between Christians increased after 1870, when Pope Pius IX declared the constitution Pastor Aeternus, of the Vatican Council I, which reaffirms the ecclesiastical Primacy and announces the reliability of the pontiff in matters of trust, ethics and authoritative opinion of the ecclesiastics.

Old Testament and New Testament

The Christian standard of the Old Testament was used in the Greek Septuagint (ie the first books of the Bible), the interpretations and unique books, and their various arrangements of writings. Despite it, Christianity included different works that would become the New Testament. Various arrangements of well-known works continued to be created in old-fashioned sentences.

In the fourth century, some experts made arrangements of sacred works that fixed a large content of the Old Testament in different places in the range of 46 and 54 different archives and a New Testament ordinance of 20 to 27 of the archives, the latter being used until the present.

By the year 400, Jerome had composed an authorized version of the Latin Bible, the canon of which, due to a limited scope at the request of Pope Damasus’ participation at the time, was decided to coincide with the choices of some of the newly assembled scholars. .

With the benefit of revision, it can very well be said that these procedures successfully resolved the New Testament group, despite the fact that there are different instances of authoritative records being used after this time.

However, this complete summary of 27 books was not legitimized by any Ecumenical Council until the Council of Trent in 1545-1563.

During the Protestant Reformation, some standard reformers proposed various arrangements that are currently used in the Church of Saint Diminish in Rome. Despite the fact that without discussion the summary of the New Testament books would continue as before, be that as it may, in the Old Testament some present writings were expelled from most Protestant groups.

In this way, in a Catholic environment, these writings are called deuterocanonical books, while in a Protestant environment they are called spurious books, the name being applied to all writings excluded from the biblical ordinance that were in the Septuagint.

It should also be noted that both Catholics and Protestants portray some different books, for example the Book of the Acts of Peter, as fanciful. In this way, the current Protestant Old Testament has 39 books: but the number fluctuates depending on the content and the stories that are told or included according to the biblical society.

The request and the name of the books also differ, while the Catholic Church perceives 46 books as a main aspect of the authorized Old Testament. The Book of Enoch is recognized in the Old Testament ordinance only by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, for example.

The expression Hebrew Scriptures is synonymous with the Protestant, not even Catholic, Old Testament which contains the Hebrew Scriptures and additional messages in its content. (See Article Prayer of the blood of Christ )

Regarding the New Testament group, there are 27 books in the standard of the Catholic Church, recognized by most of the Reformation Churches. The Syrian Church only recognizes about 22 books in its standard.

The books, for example, the First Book of Clement and the Second Book of Clement, the Book of the Covenant, the Octateuch and others, have been the subject of debates and are sanctified by the Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church.


The word Bible comes from a Latin term of special writing, from the use of the Greek expression of the book of scriptures ta hagia, whose meaning is the consecrated books, first generated in the deuterocanonical of Maccabees that this name was brought to the world as a small name from the city of Byblos, an important market for papyrus from the classical era.

It is estimated that the term of Byblos must be an advance of the first name of that city in Phoenician, there is the possibility that it is the city that got its Greek name from the term that assigned the papyrus plant, and not the other way around.

This term was used by Hellenized Hebrews (ie, people living in Greek-speaking urban areas) long before the introduction of Jesus of Nazareth to refer to the Old Testament.

Numerous years after the fact, Christians began to use it to refer to the arrangement of the books that make up the Old Testament, as well as the Gospels and the rest of the biblical stories (i.e., the New Testament).

From now on, the Latin book of holy scriptures was used, since this did not exist in another language. Be that as it may, since the Bible was a cult Latin, it ended up being seen as an impartial plural or that it is the same as a sanctified Bible.


There are different versions classified by the biblical society that narrate from another point of view the stories of great men of the Bible and of Jesus himself. Each of these are explained below:

Reina Valera Bible

Reina Valera is one of the most commonly used interpretations of the Bible into Spanish among Spanish-speaking Protestants. The current Reina Valera is the consequence of many modifications made by the United Bible Societies in one of the main interpretations of the Bible in Spanish: the 1569 Bear Bible.

In a broader sense, it incorporates the updates made by different elements that depend on the writings of the well-known King James version.

The interpretation of the Spanish priest changed to Protestantism, Casiodoro de Reina, known as the Bible of the Bear of 1569, has the normality of being the main interpretation of the holy book that is produced using the writings in the first language; using the best translated text for the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Before the distribution of the total work of Casiodoro de Reina, the current scripture books (or part of them) in Spanish, were interpretations produced using that of San Jerónimo de Estridón.

His interpreter was Casiodoro de Reina, a Spanish religious changed to Protestantism. He gets the nickname Reina Valera for having made Cipriano de Valera the first amendment of it in 1602. The Reina Valera had a wide diffusion during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. Being for a minimum of 4 centuries the main manual authorized for use within the Protestant church of the Castilian language.

Today, Reina Valera with some corrections over the years is considered one of the most used scripture books in Spanish by most of the Christian chapels obtained from the Protestant Reformation, as well as other Christian trust meetings, for example , the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of God Minister of Jesus Christ International, the renowned Gideons International and other non-denominational Christians.

Casiodoro de Reina, a Spanish Hieronymite priest from the Monastery of San Isidoro del Campo, after marginalizing himself with the Latin Vulgate Bible, to escape the mistreatment of the Spanish Inquisition, worked for a long time on the interpretation of the Bible. The Bear Bible was distributed in Basel, Switzerland.

It is known as the Bible of the Bear due to the representation on its forehead of a bear trying to reach a honeycomb hanging from a tree.

That representation, the logo of the Bavarian printer Mattias Apiarius, was placed on the spread to maintain a strategic distance from the use of religious symbols, on the grounds that no interpretation of the Bible in different dialects was permitted at the time.

The interpretation of the Old Testament, as Casiodoro de Reina explicitly states in his “Notice of the translator of the sacred books to the reader”, depended on the Hebrew content, in this way we refer to Bomberg’s version, in the year 1525.

Since he thought that the Latin version had officially done his job, contained errors and changes, he liked to use Pagnino’s Latin interpretation as an auxiliary source, in light of the fact that for the vote of all scholars the Hebrew language is considered the most perfect that exists up to this moment.

He was always close to understanding the questions of the Ferrara Bible, whose interpretation from Hebrew to Judeo-Spanish was used by Sephardic Jews, which Reina considered “the work of the most amazing consideration, with regular importance and the first with Hebrew words”.

For the interpretation of the New Testament, Reina depended on the later forms of the second release and the best original Greek copies known at the time had been simplified.

Some mention that following the third release of the Text, in 1522, the Johannine or pause comma was incorporated. Obviously, Reina also took into account the variants of the New Testament by Juan Pérez de Pineda and Francisco de Enzinas, as well as interpretations by Juan de Valdés.

The two initial versions, that of Casiodoro de Reina of 1569, called the Bible of the bear, and that of Cipriano de Valera of 1602, called the Bible of the pitcher, contained all the books incorporated into the Latin Vulgate Bible. of San Jerónimo de Estridón, which was the official content of the Bible for the Catholic Church until 1979, remembering that it was the year in which the Nova Vulgata was approved.

That is, it included nine deuterocanonical books, both Catholic and Orthodox, and another three, common to the large group persecuted by Orthodox Christian places of worship.

In Cipriano de Valera’s audit, however, these books were established as an index in a different segment towards the end of the Old Testament and before the beginning of the New Testament, this following the request at that time. (See Article: High-level intercessory prayer to ask for God’s mercy )

The Reina Valera Bible is one of the versions of the Bible that is affirmed for use in the Spanish administrations of the Episcopal Church in the United States and in the Anglican Communion that existed at that time and is used today, a version arranged to have clearer content.

Importance of Queen content

Before the Protestant Reformation, the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures in dialects was taboo due to the announcement of the IV session of the Council of Trent, and the two interpretations that should have been taken should be based on the version of the Latin Vulgate Bible, which was the official content of the Catholic Church.

Casiodoro de Reina’s work has the idiosyncrasy of being the main complete interpretation of the Bible in Spanish produced using the first dialects, for the Old Testament, and for the New Testament, both versions.

The Pre-Alfonsine Bible and the Alfonsine Bible, which were the first forms of the total Bible in Spanish, were known as interpretations produced using Latin. Before the distribution of the Bear Bible, there were only intermediate forms of the Book of Scripture, from the Hebrew and Greek dialects to Spanish.

The Casiodoro de Reina Bible reflects the academic magnificence of the supposed Golden Age of Castilian writing. In Historia de la heterodoxy español, the Catholic researcher Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo praised, from an academic perspective, the Bible of the Bear, which was considered preferred over the Catholic forms of Felipe Scío de San Miguel and even that of Félix Torres Amat.

Reina-Valera 1865

For the Latin American world, the American Bible Society supported a modification of the Bible in Spanish, “modified and revised variant of Cipriano de Valera”, it was carried out by the Spanish minister Dr. Ángel Herreros de Mora and the American evangelist Henry Barrington Pratt .

The deuterocanonical books were expelled from the Bible, completing the work that Valera began in 1602 by placing them in a different segment between the testaments. This Bible was the version distributed by the American Bible Society for the next 58 years until the 1909 Reina-Valera was distributed in 1923.

This survey was again distributed by the Valera Bible Society, now known as Ministries Valera 1865, with its worldwide home base in Antioquia, Colombia.

James Rule Version

In 1862, the press of the segment “Unauthenticated written work” erased the “Ancient adaptation of Cipriano de Valera, examined with different interpretations and modified by the first Hebrews and Greeks”, made by Lorenzo Lucena Pedrosa. from the Cantabrian Bible.

In 1907, two societies joined together, the American Bible, the British and Foreign Bible chose to conduct another survey, which was appointed by a Committee composed of Victoriano D. Báez and Carlos W.

For their part, three of these experts such as Thomson, Juan Howland, and without downplaying Francisco Diez, who began to meet in 1909 and distributed their revised form in 1923, known as Reina-Valera 1909, for the year in which the Committee.

In this way, the United Bible Societies made significant amendments to the Reina-Valera in 1960, 1995 and 2011.

The modifications of the United Bible Societies have eliminated numerous antiquated types from the Spanish language and have renewed some components of the style, and yet, if conceivable, the way in which Reina’s version kept in touch with his work

Reina-Valera 1960 updated

The revised 1960 Reina-Valera was produced by a meeting of biblical scholars from different Hispanic nations of various Christian categories, and the survey commission considered the perceptions made by ministers and laity from Spain and Latin America.

This without changing the essential importance of the message of the Scriptures and also safeguarding the style and rhythm of the content of this version of Reina.

The type of interpretation of the Reina Valera of 1960 is formal equality. This is the most recognized form for each of the chapels in Latin America and Spain. That is to say, the version most used by Orthodox or Protestant Christians.

Reconsidered Reina-Valera 1995

The revised version of Reina-Valera 1995 was also carried out through a meeting of Bible scholars from different Hispanic nations from different Christian groups. But this version is strictly for biblical research use.

Queen James contemporary version (RVC)

In 2011, the Reina-Valera Contemporanea (RVC) emerged, organized at that time by the United Bible Societies Revision and Translation Committee and other societies together.

This version shows with commentaries the most outstanding contrasts between the Greek New Testament of the United Bible Societies and the known Critical Text. In addition, the heavenly name of “Jehovah” was supplanted by the “Ruler”, following the case of the Septuagint or first books of the Bible.

The type of interpretation of the contemporary version is of an increasingly powerful identity, since it tries to exhibit a content where the instinctive nature of the writer prevails and that pursues a progressively current grammar. Among those language adjustments are:

  • A more notable use of the syntactic application of Spanish, that is, the subject, verb and object are taken into account instead of Hebrew, which is only the verb, the subject and the object but in conjunction with other translations and examples.
  • Substitution of those “ing” words that give Spanish strange turns.
  • Better use of accent marks.
  • Language progressively adjusted to Spanish in America.
  • An advanced in the examples.

bright age bible

On June 16, 2009, the Bible of the Golden Age was distributed throughout the world, starting with Spain. It was exhibited by the National Library of Spain and the Biblical Society of Spain in the event of praising the 440 years of the main version of the Bear Bible in 1569.

Biblical writings, including the fanciful deuterocanonical books, which have been arranged after the correction of Cipriano de Valera.

Simply after more than four centuries, created by Reina y Valera, it was distributed in Spain as its creators did. Of course, the correction depends on the content of the well-known version of Reina-Valera in 1995.

RV1909 version

The Trinitarian Bible Society is dealing with a Reina-Valera 1909 modification company. The objective is to apply the sentence structures used by Reina and Valera, however, tolerating the current orthographic standards of the Royal Spanish Academy and eliminating those words. that have changed their meaning.

The interface of the 1909 Reina-Valera with the specific attributes and dialects of different interpretations is also avoided. The revised New Testament is required to be available for use in 2016 from each of the nations.


The biblical group of the Catholic Church perceives 73 books as an important aspect of Holy Scripture. It is 46 works for the Old Testament and 45 without the Book of Jeremiah and the Book of Lamentations are considered one, and 27 for the New Testament.

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the summary of the books in the Catholic Bible is made up of 46 works for the Old Testament and 27 compositions for the New Testament. The current standard was first characterized at the Council of Rome in 382, ​​and was definitively established at the Council of Trent to be proclaimed a trusted doctrine.

There are several essential variants of the Bible. The current versions of the Bible in the different dialects are interpretations of some variant. These are:

Form of the “Seventy” or “Alejandrina”: also called the Septuagint, is the main Greek variant for its design and specialist. Its composition began in the 3rd century BC. C. and it was finished around the 2nd century BC. c.

The name “Seventy” is due to the way the Jewish convention credits its interpretation to 70 cunning men and “Alexandrine” as having been created in Alexandria and used by Greek-speaking Jews in place of the Hebrew content.

This interpretation was made to be read carefully in the synagogues of the “diaspora” or group of Jewish people outside of Palestine, and perhaps also to introduce the Bible to agnostics.

Latin versions

Old Itala or Latin Version: originates from the Seventy Version for the vast majority of the books of the Old Testament. Also, from the early Greeks to the New Testament. Also the book of Wisdom, 2nd Maccabees and Ecclesiastical.

Vulgate: Towards the end of the 4th century, Pope Damasus asked Saint Jerome to make another Latin version in view of the old Itala. This variant was certainly forced in the seventh century. It was classified as “Vulgate” because the objective of the work was to “vulgarize” it, make it prominent, to put it more clearly.

It was Jerome who legitimately deciphered the first Hebrew and Greek into Latin, apart from the books of Baruch, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, first and second book of Maccabees, who translated them, without adjustments, from the old Itala.

Neovulgata: The Neovulgata is a similar form of Vulgate, to which the most recent advances and disclosures have been consolidated. Pope John Paul II affirmed and declared the regular release in 1979. The Pope did this for this new form to be filled out as a protected reason for doing an interpretation of the Bible in current dialects and for Bible examinations.

Spanish versions

When talking about the Spanish variants of the Holy Scriptures, it is difficult to refer to each of the Bibles converted to our language. In this sense, we demonstrate some that, due to their importance or their diffusion, deserve to be observed. All, if nothing else is expressed, are deciphered directly from the first dialects and incorporate introductions and notes.

13th century

In this century the outstanding version was the Alfonsine Bible. It is a book of written sentiments, that is, an interpretation of the Bible, the most complete in Spanish and the main Bible finished and accessible in a European language other than Latin.

With the support of King Alfonso X, it was completed by the Toledo School of Translators, which took the Latin content of the Vulgate as its initial stage. For this reason it was considered a piece of general history, a task of a very extended history.

Beforehand, and during the 13th century itself, another interpretation had been made, the supposed pre-Alphonsine Bible, of which some sections are kept in the library of the Monastery of El Escorial.

New international version

The New International Version is a careful adaptation of the Bible. This adaptation is deciphered directly from Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek sources.

The interpretation was established in 1999 by a meeting of scriptural specialists who speak to twelve Spanish-speaking nations, who have a place with a decent number of Christian outreach divisions, and who used an analysis similar to that of the Anglo-Saxon version of the New International Version. .

This edition is responsible for the above Bible distribution house and the International Bible Society. The New International Version is one of the most limitless adaptations of the Bible, more than 450 million duplicates of its English interpretation have been sold.

How many books does he have?

When referring to the book of scriptures, many people overlook that there are different types of it, just like religions. In the Catholic religion, the holy book is made up of 73 books, these are divided between the Old Testament and the New Testament.

The Old Testament alone consists of 46 books, while the New Testament is made up of the rest of the 27 books. The Protestant scripture books have 66 books, 7 of them are not exactly to be considered Catholic scripture books, this disparity is because the Protestant scripture books exclude the following books: Tobias, Judith, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, the Wisdom, Sirach and Baruch.

The contrast between the books comes, in large part, in light of the fact that the Palestinians have just recognized the books incorporated into the Old Testament. In the 90s BC, approximately 39 books had just been incorporated into the Old Testament.

The partition of the books of the Scriptures occurred around the year 1517, when Martin Luther isolated himself from the Catholic Church, and considering that in shaping his new church, he decided to reject the 7 books written in the ancient Greek language.

The 7 books of the Old Testament, written in Greek, have been the subject of discussion for many years. The Catholic Church called these 7 books “deuterocanonical”. The other 39 books written in Hebrew are called “protocanonical books.”

Old Testament

The Old Testament is the initial segment of the Christian Bible. The second piece of the Christian Bible is the New Testament. The First Testament is made up of the Pentateuch, and different arrangements of Chronic, Cunning, and Prophetic books.

In total, 39 books in the Protestant version, 46 books in the Catholic Church form, and 51 books in the Orthodox Church form are numbered in the Old Testament.

The Jews separate the books of the Tanakh into three particular meetings: Torah referring to the Law, Neviim (los to the Prophets and Ketuvim to works or wisdom. The group called Jehovah’s Witnesses leans towards the articulation of the Hebrew Scriptures to refer to this accumulation of books.


It is the main book of the Torah or Pentateuch and, consequently, it is also the main book of the Jewish Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. In Hebrew, the books of the Pentateuch are known by their first word, so to the Hebrews this book means Bereishit or ‘initially’.

The beginning of the name originates from the Greek génesis, ‘birth, creation, source’, in Genesis 2: 4, in Hebrew term this word “beginning” refers to age despite the fact that as the title of the book used are the expressions of the Torah and mean “In (the) Beginning”.

The Book of Genesis does not specify any writer. Numerous academic reviews agree that it has some sources, composed by some religious, for example in the period of imprisonment in Babylon, and that it has numerous creators.

For the vast majority of the 20th century, scholarly investigations into the sources of the beginning were overwhelmed by detailed narrative speculation by Julius Wellhausen towards the century part of the initial arrangement.

This speculation considers that Genesis is a set of autonomous sources: content J, named for its use of the term as the name of God; the E content, so named in light of the fact that it uses Elohim as the name of God; and the content P, or consecrated source, as a result of his anxiety over the organization of Aaron and the Levites.

These writings were created autonomously somewhere in the range of 950 and 500 BC. In addition, it supported various forms of composition, coming full circle in its current structure around 450 BC. c.

Some additional sources have been recognized that cannot be attributed to any of the three unique archives, particularly in Genesis where the clash of Abraham and the “lords of the East” and the “gift of Jacob” are recounted.

Custom holds that Moses composed the Pentateuch (the “five books” containing Genesis between them). Among medieval researchers this convention remained unanswered until Wellhausen’s speculation. (See Article: Miraculous Prayer to the Holy Spirit )

In the main part of the 20th century, the study of biblical paleohistory, created by William F and his followers, was joined by the use of new strategies to focus, for example, the analysis of the sources and the historical context of the convention, created by Hermann Gunkel, and others in later years.

They seem to show that the tales of Genesis depend on the oral customs of the second thousand years before Christ. Thus, by the mid-20th century, it seemed that prehistoric studies and academia had accommodated Wellhausen’s speculation with a changed variant of Moses’ origin.

The Greek name originates from the beginning of the world, humanity and Jewish individuals, the family history of all humanity from the first moment. Furthermore, “beginning” has the meaning of “introduction,” since Jewish history appropriately begins with the Exodus, to which Genesis is essentially a prolegomenon.

This title appears in the Septuagint or Greek Septuagint Version which refers to the first books in the bible. In Hebrew, the book is called «Bere’schíth»: “In the Beginning”, which is taken from the main expression.


The fundamental themes ensured by this book are three: the promise, the election and the covenant. This is not unique, as each of the three recurs throughout the Bible, however each of them is predominant in various pieces of Genesis.

In the crude story, God’s expectations are frustrated by man’s infidelity. In Abraham’s story, he gives up confidence, submits to earnest and triumphant scrutiny that is finally fully restored at the end of the story; Those who never lost it are compensated.

In the time of Jacob, it becomes clear that God’s decision for the Hebrew individuals does not seek any deceitful reason, however, it is liberal and benevolent. With Josue, at last, he disappoints the driving forces of human malice and calmly guides them to eventually defend them with the plans and goals of the heavenly structure.

The beginning fits precisely into the meaning of a recorded biblical book, continually reminding us that the expression “authentic” should not be understood in the sense given to current history. This is particularly true for the sections on beginnings and for the historical context of the patriarchs. In any case, Genesis is additionally the companion of the exodus, data are recognized in historiography:

Ancestral Family: A long array of histories, sequences, and ancestry of parents attending family occasions who detest political or religious occasions. However, it does not pursue the progression of governments, but that of family members.

Prevalent history: As a rule, it dwells on hard facts that can intrigue simple individuals and often prevents realities that seem to be basic for today’s religionists.

Religious history: Everything described is seen under the criterion that it is the result of the immediate activity of the main God, which obviously mediates every minute that passes. Similarly, each of the realities is assembled and revealed by philosophical hypotheses designed to prove any of the religious theories.

Despite these precisions, Genesis gives the impression of describing, in the historical context of the patriarchs, the certainties that were or appear to be genuine, giving extremely distinctive images of the birthplace and relocations of the Hebrew individuals, of their ethnicities and roots and its ethical, social and cultural structures.


The Book of Joshua is the main book of the second of the three sections in which the Tanach is divided and the sixth book of the Old Testament. It is situated between Deuteronomy (the last book of the Pentateuch), which ends with the disappearance of Moses at the entrances to Canaan, and the Book of Judges.

The book recounts the section of the Israelites in the Promised Land under the initiative of Joshua and serving God in the land. It takes its name from the man who succeeded Moses as a pioneer of the Hebrew clans.

Along with Deuteronomy, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, and the Book of Kings, it has a place with a custom of Jewish history and law, called Deuteronomy, which began to be composed around 550 BC. C. during the Babylonian time.

God’s Bonus to Joshua: The book begins with a concise introduction where Joshua is assigned by Yahweh as Moses’ successor, with the duty of bringing the individuals of Israel to the Promised Land.

Joshua had just hung out in the book of Exodus for his mental toughness in fighting the Amalekites, (Exodus) and in the book of Numbers it is one of the accounts where men were sent by Moses to investigate the place known as Canaan.

Access to Land and his victory: The book describes in detail a progression of triumphs in the Promised Land, including Jericho and Ai, at that point expanding to the south and north.

Land division: Therefore, it refers to the cast that your hero makes between the different clans. The following are some reference sections that record the Shechem Assembly and Joshua’s arrangements.

Joshua’s Goodbye : At last, the book closes with Joshua’s individuals farewell speech and his passing.

A direct look at the entire book shows us that it consists of three sections: the victory of Canaan, the transmission of expired dominions, and the solidarity of Israel established in trust.

The Book of Joshua frames an ideological and calculated content with the books of the Pentateuch in a similar way as Genesis imports a guarantee and the other four books of the Torah are the books of charges and laws, Joshua is where the acknowledgments are connected, in which Yahweh shows himself dedicated to his guarantees, which he carefully satisfies when the Jews meekly obey him.

The Psalms

It originates from a Greek action word meaning “to play a stringed instrument,” and was initially used to assign the melodies joined by that instrument. The latter was classified as “Psalter”, but later the name lost its uniqueness and began to be used as an equivalent word for Book of Psalms.

The Old Testament contains several delightful messages with qualities like those of the Psalms. The popular Song of Moses, the psalm of triumph sung by Deborah and Barak, David’s decision for the death of Saul and Jonathan, and Jonah’s Complaint, are a part of the numerous models to which he can refer.

However, the cabal’s fortunes and Israel’s religious verse is found at a very basic level in the Psalter. A Jewish convention, which was generally scattered in the Church, attributes the great majority of the psalms to David.

This attribution depends on the declaration of the authentic books of the Old Testament, which more than once refer to David’s elegant and melodic virtuoso.

However, the different individual and national circumstances reflected in the Psalms, their variety of abstract styles and classes, as well as their cozy association with the ceremonial existence of Israel, prevent us from declaring that the Psalter was created by a solitary writer or the result of a imaginary story.

On the other hand, this convention began to form long after the Babylonian pariah, that is, the point at which it was basic among the Jews to put the name of an extraordinary character, each of the works had a similar place type (See Article sentences for spiritual warfare )

Consequently, for example, all of the enactment contained in the Pentateuch was credited to Moses, while Solomon was seen as the originator of all insightful writing. All things considered, the Psalter is the Prayer Book that the Israelites were making over a few centuries to exchange with their God.

Through one hundred and fifty religious songs, these people communicated their encounters and the deepest yearnings of their spirit: their battles and their expectations, their triumphs and their disappointments, their veneration and their thanksgiving, their resistance, their contrition and, more importantly, the consumerist intrigue that arises from the disease, the need, the marginalized, the shame and any other hopelessness of man.

Towards the beginning of most of the Psalms there are engravings or “titles”, with signs of a melodic, idyllic, ceremonial or engraved character, the importance of which is often obscure. These titles do not originate from the creators of each psalm, but were included by the vocalists of the Jerusalem Temple, as the different ballads were brought together in collections.

In the Hebrew content of the Old Testament, the Psalms are assigned an expression meaning “melodies of praise.”

This assignment fits a Psalms meeting, but is less reasonable when connected to the whole meeting, since the Psalter incorporates, notwithstanding the “Songs” or “Melodies of Praise”, different types of petition, in particular, the “Supplications” and the “melodies of thanksgiving”.

The “Psalms” express the mood of love of the adherents to the essence of the enormity and integrity of God. At this gathering, the “Melodies of Zion” and the “Psalms to the Sovereignty of the Lord” are recognized for their unusual theme.

The “supplications” react to the need to certainly seek divine clemency in the midst of difficulties, and two different types can be recognized: the “aggregate” and the “singular” supplications. The “Thanksgiving Tunes” are a statement of appreciation for the assistance received from the Lord, and are further separated into “group” and “person”.

The particular component of these Psalms is the record of the sufferings witnessed by the psalmist and the grave announcement of the advantages achieved. Psalm is a book of the Old Testament Scriptures and the Hebrew Tanakh, which is grouped among the wisdom books of Christianity and among the Ketuvim or “Compositions” of Judaism.


It is made up of vast accumulations of proverbs or prayers of religious or good deeds and is situated in the Bible between the books of Psalms and Ecclesiastes, and in the Jewish Bible between the books of Job and Ruth. The Septuagint and the Vulgate use say that both are terms that limit the first importance of the Hebrew word to that of saying or doing.

These ethical prayers are frequently the product of amazing revelation and different occasions originate from human experience and intelligence (different parts of God’s impact).

They communicate regularly, such as ideas different from the scriptural method of instruction, such as quizzes, verbal rhythms, intense articulations, or puzzling stories.

Readers are expected to be wise, in light of the fact that more often than not, the drive to understand each of the proverbs requires some preparation. “Proverb” is also understood as a single saying, anecdote, or intentional aphorism, continually embodying a basic education of human experience that might contain a religious articulation.

The proverbs are usually credited to King Solomon, and in any case he tends to enlighten himself, through his utilization of ever older scholarly types, which are among the most seasoned in the book.

In addition, warnings are made to the cultured life that could not arise on later occasions, since the list of wonders and anecdotes will not be coordinated in later rules. The most extreme area of ​​the posterior was at that time ancient and very prominent in the time of Hezekiah, it was during the Assyrian attacks of about 722 BC. C. DO.

Talks in the Jewish circle about his canonicity were closed after the Council of Jamnia. On the other hand, to a Christian degree, the writer Theodore clearly did not prevent the book from asserting that Proverbs has a place with the rest of the Old Testament, but rather that he considered its essence to be about human judgment.

It is difficult to characterize the ideas of the book, in light of the fact that no coherent application could be found in the grouping of letters it contains.

The book has an introduction, a progression of buildups, and an ending. The preface is made up of a lengthy speech that intrudes twice to embed lectures originating from the Wisdom, while the two subsequent large accumulations demonstrate the exceptionally ancient structure of the conventional Mashal. The current wording, in any case, is much later.

As indicated by the Whybray muses that have been commonly recognized by different exegetes, the book of Proverbs can be separated into eight segments.

Although specific actionable information is communicated that allows for joy to be achieved, the intelligence communicated in the cunning books never disregards trust in Yahweh, in this sense demonstrating their religious depth rather than reasonable or good. The sources used by these sages are the writings of the prophets.

Another trademark is a confident inclination to represent or censor human activities for the sake of knowledge.

The plot of the book is obviously set in Proverbs 1:2-7. It depends on the idea of ​​Wisdom that is communicated in these Books: the “cunning”, who appears before individuals as an individual who originates from God and speaks on his behalf; Therefore, the insightful offer a part of the traits of eternity.

In different events, the god himself awaits the work of an expert, as a creator of the world and coordinator of ethical quality. The cunning of the Proverbs, to put it plainly, are the lessons of the philosophical way of thinking that instructs man to resemble the perceptive and live according to the needs.

Like most scriptures, the Proverbs show in some entries that the cunning men who thought of them (or of Solomon himself) had solid contact with and deep knowledge of the cunning writing of the East and particularly Egypt.

The Book of Isaiah is the fifth of those in the Jewish Tanakh and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Bible. The book is recognized by a superscript as having been created by the 8th century BC prophet. C. Isaiah ben Amoz, however, there is sufficient evidence that it was quite formed during the Babylonian imprisonment and after.

While, for all intents and purposes, no one today characterizes the entire book (in any way) as an individual, the basic solidarity of the book has turned into a concentration on exploring so much more. Isaiah, for his part, guarantees the judgment and the claim of Judah, Jerusalem and the countries, also assuming that the judgment has been said and that the reconstruction will come soon.

In this way, it can be considered as a broad contemplation of the fate of Jerusalem during and after the advent.


It denounces degenerate pioneers and the most distressed; and the underlying foundations of exemplary nature in God’s holiness rather than Israel’s contract. Isaiah contains the primary clear proclamation of monotheism: “I am the first, and I am the last, and besides me there is no God.”

This model of monotheism became the normal characterization of post-overthrow Judaism and the rationale for Christianity and Islam.

In Christian circles it was held in such high esteem that it was classified as “the Fifth Gospel,” and its impact extends beyond Christianity to Western writing and culture in general, from the lyrics of Handel’s Messiah to a progression of regular expressions, such as “swords to plowshares” and “voice in the desert”.

Considering that Isaiah is a two-section book with a general theme, it provokes a summary of its content in your search:

The book opens by discovering the themes of judgment and the consequent reconstruction of what is honest. God has an agreement that will be recognized “At the coming of Yahweh”, when Jerusalem becomes the focal point of his legislature throughout the world.

On that day, all the countries of the world will come to Zion (Jerusalem) for guidance, but first the city must be rejected and swept away by malice. Israel is welcome to join this agreement. They also make clear the importance of the Assyrian preliminary against Israel: the Davidic ruler’s only administration will proceed after the selfish Assyrian ruler is overthrown.

The disposition of the countries for the reality government of Yahweh is declared; The following chapters report that an imperial hero (a savior) will emerge due to the discipline of Jerusalem and the annihilation of his oppressor.

The oppressor (currently distinguished as Babylon instead of Assyria) is going to fall, say the people. This book tells how Yahweh will restore the recovered outcasts to Jerusalem. Continuing sections speak of King Hezekiah’s dedication to Yahweh during the Assyrian attack as a model for the reestablished network.

Sections 40–54 note that the reclaiming of Zion is occurring because Yahweh, the creator of the universe, has assigned the Persian lord Cyrus the Great as the guaranteed savior and developer of the sanctuary. Sections 55 to 66 are an appeal to Israel to keep the contract.

The book ends with a request for fairness as the final phases of God’s agreement occur, including the countries’ journey to Zion and recognition of Yahweh’s government.

The new Testament

It is the second piece of the Christian Bible. In the New Testament there are occasions identified with the life, service and execution of Jesus of Nazareth, as well as the different occasions that occurred in the main years of Christianity.

Made somewhere in the range of 50 and 100 d. C., is made up of a standard arrangement of books and letters composed after the tortuous murder of Jesus of Nazareth, which the biblical convention made the Church perceive.

It is assigned as the New Testament from Tertullian in the Christian Church. Actually with the Hebrew Tanakh, called by the Christians of the Old Testament, the Jews (apart from the supposed Messianic Jews), do not share the New Testament practically speaking with the Christians.

The use of the expression “confirmation” originates from the Hebrew word berith (“promise, agreement, agreement or manners between two temporary workers”), through the Greek diatheké and the Latin testamentum.

Some creators present the names Old and New Testament with which the two incredible areas where the Christian Bible is separated are assigned as a consequence of a misunderstanding of the word diatheké, which means: ‘to want’ or ‘will’, and also ‘ understanding’ or ‘covenant’.

With this measure, diatheké in Greek would refer to the old and new agreement of God with men in opposition to the Scriptures themselves. (See Article Prayer to cast out demons )

According to different creators, the expression “confirmation” originates in the interpretation of the Vulgate and in the death of the Hebrew idea in Greek, and would be the secondary effect of a conscious search.

Septuagint interpreters would have had a dispute over this issue. It was understood that the possibility of refraining from discussing the berith (the union between God and Israel) was an agreement between equivalents.

That is the reason why they did not use the Greek expression Syntheké (which is interpreted by ‘coalition’), instead they chose Diatheké, which is deciphered by ‘confirmation’ or ‘will’, which is the commitment of one with respect to another. that only makes profit.

In this sense, they presented the divergence between the meetings (that is, between God and men). At that point, that is one of the implications of the word testament and Castilian (not clearly seen as a last will, as in everyday use).

From now on, Latin variants, for example, Jerome of Stridon, and most forms of the Christian Bible continue to use the expression “confirmation” instead of “association” to refer to the Old Testament or union of Sinai and the New Testament and its contract with the blood of Christ.

Although they agree that such ideas do not refer to the accumulation of sacred compositions, but to the relationships between piety and individuals in religious history, most researchers essentially refer to the prevalent and informal use of these ideas.

The most established variants of the so-called New Testament writings, which are saved, are written in the so-called Koine Greek, the Frankish language in the eastern Mediterranean on Roman occasions.

Most teachers accept that this was the language in which they were originally composed, although some books may have been first composed in Hebrew or Aramaic, the Semitic language spoken by and around Jesus. (See Article Christian prayer for a terminally ill ).

Even today there are original writings, written from the fifth century, close to the most established total Greek compositions in Aramaic, for example, the Syriac Peshitta, the Harcleian and the Curetonian, however, most researchers think of them as interpretations of the Greek.


The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. It was composed with a Jewish group of onlookers in mind, so it contains numerous references to the Old Testament predictions that Jesus fulfilled.

In any case, it contains 129 references or implications to the Old Testament. Matthew’s goal was to show the Jews that Jesus was indeed the Messiah they had anticipated.

The accounts are usually printed with Mateo first since all the raw records that exist of the accounts list him as the director (convention met and protected). He is followed by Mark, Luke, and John, in a specific order. (See Article Prayer)

Custom, returning to Papias of Hierapolis, attributes his initiation to Matthew, a servant authority whom Jesus of Nazareth called to follow him as one of his messengers. Papias says that Matthew put together the idiomatic expressions in Hebrew, interpreting each one as he could.

It is his origin that distinguishes this Matthew from the publican of whom Matthew himself speaks in Matthew 9:9. The problem is that the Gospel of Matthew that we know is substantially more than a simple reunion of the colloquialisms of Jesus, and that his unique language certainly does not appear to be Hebrew or Aramaic.

For the relationship of the creator with the homonymous tax collector, it is regularly held that this evangelist is the one who in particular calls this tax collector “Matthew” (while Luke and Mark call him Levi); also, in the summary of the missionaries, to the name of Mateo he includes: the publican.

On the other hand, it has been noted that in his gospel there are 115 words that are not found in others and that have to do with cash, gold, silver, obligations, accounts, cash changes, etc., he affirms that he would be at the tip of the pen of a publican.

In any case, most current exegetes prove that this book was conceived by an unknown writer who used past conventions or records for its composition.

This writer would be a Judeo-Christian and would be from the second or third era of the Christians, of course, He was an observer in the service of Jesus (a spectator would not gather the totality of his work with respect to a recently composed work, however, he would determine what what did you see).


The Gospel according to Mark or Gospel of Mark is the second book of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It is the story of the life, service, supernatural events, and expressions of Jesus Christ. Unlike Matthew, who originally presented Jesus as the Messiah.

It is the shortest of the four accepted accounts and, moreover, the most established by most of the assumption of the experts of the Scriptures. There is broad agreement among researchers to date the Gospel of Mark to the late 1960s of the first century AD, or not very long. after 70 AD

Its creator is obscure, even though a late Christian convention credits him to Mark, a character referred to in other sections of the New Testament. It tells the life of Jesus of Nazareth from his acquittal by John the Baptist to his revival.


The Gospel of Luke, or Gospel as indicated by Saint Luke, is the third and largest of the four authoritative accounts of the biblical New Testament. Describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth, focusing particularly on his introduction to the world, open service, death, restoration, and closings with the story of his rise.

Luke’s rationale, recorded as a hard copy of an account of the life, disappearance, and revival of Jesus Christ, was so that people outside the Jewish trust and culture could understand the message of salvation.

His gospel has a peaceful reason: his expectation is the development of trust, indicating Christ as the Savior of men, with his indulgent soul.

The gospel is mysterious in that it is not agreed upon. It is consistently recognized that it was composed by a similar creator of the Acts of the Apostles, since the two works are dedicated to a similar character, a “Theophilus”, which does not take into account whether it is a genuine character or a representative name.

Similarly, the writer of the book of Acts alludes to a past job in his introduction. The homogeneity of style and thought of these two books has also been promoted.

The gospel has usually been credited to Luke, the “esteemed scholar” alluded to by Paul of Tarsus in his Epistle to the Colossians. The attribution to Luke of each of Paul’s followers is situated to some extent in the way in which the Gospel of him is the one who is able to lead others.


The Apocalypse of Saint John, also called the Book of Revelations, is the last book of the New Testament and the Christian Bible. Otherwise, it is called Revelations of Jesus Christ after the title given to this book at the beginning and, in some Protestant circles, basically as Revelation or Book of Revelations.

Due to its abstract classification, it is considered by most scholastics to be the main New Testament book of a uniquely prophetic nature. (See Article High level intercessory prayer for healing of the sick )

The Apocalypse could be the most extravagant image in the entire Bible. The measurement of images, occasions and procedures confuses the task of translating all content and, all things considered, has been the subject of various examinations, clarifications and debates since the beginning of time.

The writer is distinguished within the book as John, and in a state of expulsion on the island of Patmos (in the Aegean Sea) for giving a statement about Jesus.

The coincidence of this name with that of John the Evangelist and the writer of other New Testament works is largely the motivation behind why the book is generally attributed to the messenger Saint John (to whom the fourth Gospel and three letters: 1 John, 2 John and 3 John).

However, in Revelation, the writer simply notices his name, never acknowledging himself with a similar missionary from John of the Gospels, nor does he handle a similar writer from different works credited to the witness.

In the year 633, the Fourth Council of Toledo, which tried to clarify the uncertainty that had occurred since the last segment of the third century, when no student who had met or known the writer of the Fourth Gospel lived, said that the Apocalypse was created by the Evangelist. and that it should be taken as an amazing and positively accepted work, criticizing the ban to the people who denied it.

Therefore, the Catholic Church generally thinks of the Book as the writer of the apostle John, the so-called Evangelist equivalent, which is a supernaturally animated book and is a part of the Holy Scriptures to be stored in Catholic trust.

In any case, the current internal exams for the most part group together the works accredited to Juan and some go so far as to certify that they have a place with a supposed network called “Johannine”. This position would not really prove missionary John’s immediate origin, however a network established by him or fairly affected by him would be the one creating these reports.

Thus, he maintains that regardless of whether John had not composed the Apocalypse in calligraphy, it would be as if he had done so through this network.

Furthermore, they imagine that assigning a famous person as the creator of the works was basic to the custom of destroying everyone’s writing, not to give extra credit, but false, but since in reality the genuine writer is completely related to character. that he stands out as the creator of the work.

Indeed, you realize that the Apocalypse or Revelations was composed towards the beginning of the following century, when the Roman ill-treatment of the Christians turned out to be even bloodier, in the season of the Emperor Domitian (who was Caesar of the Roman Empire towards the part of the agreement I).

This, similar to some different heads, requested (either out of direct vanity or as a technique of compulsion on their subjects) that their statues be loved throughout the domain, which Christians would not achieve for religious reasons: the Caesars styled themselves ‘Masters of lords’, despite ‘descendants of God’, titles that Christians keep only for Jesus Christ. (See Article Short Christian prayer )

Therefore, the Apocalypse would also convey a chronic base that would make numerous references to these abuses and to the guide that the writer would provide to his readers, Christians, to remain in confidence to persevere in anguish, putting to the last any desire for the new Jerusalem as a prize.

parts of the bible

The two notable divisions or parts of the Bible are the Old and New Testaments; Between them there is a time of 400 years in which no consecrated writings are recorded. This period is called “intertestamental” found between one testament and another or, “God’s Tranquility for Israel”, although different human advances and kingdoms are rising and falling in the center.

Old Testament

It is made up of 46 separate books: Pentateuch and Historical Books.


  • Genesis. That counts the creation of the World and Man, the fall of evil and its results. Also, the historical backdrop of the Patriarchs of Israel.
  • Exodus: tells the story of the Jews in Egypt and the scourge of subjugation until they were discharged by Moses and the landing on Mount Sinai with the seal of the First Covenant in which God sends the Ten Commandments.
  • Leviticus, number and deuteronomy: the laws that God provided for the Israelites are detailed. Farewell and death of Moses.

Historical books

  • Joshua: Describes how the Israelites claimed the Promised Land.
  • Judges: How were the first 300 years there and the certainties of the main managers?
  • Ruth: What was life like for King David’s parents?
  • Samuel: The narrative of Samuel and the main lords of Israel: Saul and David.
  • Rulers: The account of Solomon and different lords.
  • Accounts or Paralipomenos: The historical background of the rulers of Israel proceeds.
  • Ezra and Nehemiah: New expulsion of the Israelites and slavery in Babylon.
  • Tobias, Esther and Judith: the account of three characters and their battle.
  • Maccabees: the chivalric battle of five brothers to free their relatives.

In the same way it was separated into two: poetics and wisdom. There are 7 books:

  • Job: God tests his most faithful employee.
  • Psalms: 150 supplications and psalms.
  • Proverbs: 3 thousand sayings composed by Solomon and other cunning men.
  • Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon and Wisdom: Written by Solomon to save eternal truth.
  • Prophetic: These are 18 books that tell the story of numerous different prophets.

New Testament

These are 27 books made after the birth of Christ. They are isolated in historical, didactic and prophetic.

– Historical

Gospels: Told by devoted Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, they recount the life, lessons, enthusiasm, and restoration of Jesus.

Manifestations of the apostles: Refers to the historical background of the first 40 years of the early Church after the disappearance of Christ and the life of Saint Paul.

– Teachings

Made by the letters of the apostles San Pablo, Santiago, San Subside and San Judas Tadeo, and the three letters of San Juan, results brought by the new edict of Jesus.

– prophetic

Apocalypse: The revelations about the end of days and the new kingdom of God.


Life presents us with difficulties once a day, and from time to time it is difficult to stay attentive to everything that is happening, with a desire to go ahead and fight until the obstacle survives. It’s great to realize that we can discover inspirational statements in the Bible!

I ask you, through the Spirit and with the influence that originates in your magnificent wealth, to strengthen you in the depths of your being, so that through trust in Christ the peace you need may dwell in your soul.

Ephesians 3: 16-17 

Currently, trust is the certification of what is normal, the guarantee of what is not seen.

Jews 11:1 

We live by trust, not by sight.

2 Corinthians 5:7 

May the God of expectation fill you with all happiness and harmony for you who have confidence in him, so that you can be flooded with expectation by the intensity of the Holy Spirit.

Romans 15:13 

Be that as it may, ask confidently, decisively, in light of the fact that the questioner is likened to the floods of the ocean, disturbed and transported beginning with one place and then the next by the breeze.

James 1:6 

In reality, without trust it is difficult to satisfy God, since anyone who seeks God needs to accept that he exists and that he pays those who seek him.

Jews 11:6 

“Did I not reveal to you that in case you trust you will see the greatness of God?” Jesus answered.

John 11:40

We appreciate it despite not having seen it; and even though they don’t see him now, they have faith in him and celebrate with an incredible and heavenly euphoria, because they are achieving the goal of his trust, which is his salvation.

1 Peter 1:8-9 

Who wrote it?

The Bible According to Ancient Accounts was written by researcher Richard Elliott Friedman. The book is a clarification of assumptions that have been narrated regarding the layout of the Old Testament. In it, Friedman alters and extends Julius Wellhausen’s model, which estimates that the meeting between experts to bring this content to print was composed earlier than is normally recognized, during the time of King Hezekiah, that is, in the time between 715 B.C. C and 687 a. C and not before).

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