Old Testament: what is it?, characteristics, books, prophets, characters, and more

Old Testament: what is it?, characteristics, books, prophets, characters, and more

The Old Testament as an initial part of the Scripture, was inspired by God. He knows in the next post more about this topic and each of the books that make it up.

What is the old testament?

It is considered by experts to be the initial segment of the Christian Bible. The second recognized piece of the Christian Bible is the New Testament. The Old Testament is made up of the Pentateuch and different arrangements of authentic, profound and prophetic books. (See Article: The Bible )

In total, 39 books in the adaptation are recognized by the Protestant side, 46 books in the form of the Catholic Church and 51 books in that of the Orthodox Church are numbered in the Old Testament.

The Jews divide the books of the Tanaj or Bible into three particular meetings: Torah as the Law, Neviim as the Prophets and Ketuvim referring to the compositions or wisdom. The gathering called Jehovah’s Witnesses leans towards the expression of the Hebrew Scriptures to emphasize this collection of books. (See article: Miraculous prayer of the Holy Spirit  )

The Tanaj is composed of the Torah of Moses or the set of books written by him, for its part the main book considered as directed and composed by God himself and transmitted to Moses on Mount Sinai; the prophets, which are the books that are considered motivated by the Prophetic Revelation; and the Writings, which are a collection of works in chronological order that are seen as awakened by the Holy Spirit.

Since God, in his Torah instructions, is not to include or expel any of these books of Moses, the entire composition that came after is deemed in the light of scripture as his own. In this sense, books that are less coupled to the Torah are considered less motivated and, consequently, less significant.

Therefore, Judaism does not think of the writings of Jesus’ devotees as divinely motivated, thus the Jewish Bible is made of the Tanakh itself. (See Article: Prayer of thanks to God for a new day )

Some gatherings, including Nazarene Jews and Messianics, that is, those who are not perceived as Jewish by any category, regard the so-called “New Testament” as significant learning material, on a level similar to that of the Old Testament.


As for the initial idea, the Old Testament concentrated on the guarantee that God offered to the individuals of Israel for what happened to the Messiah, who could pass them on from the oppressors of that time. The Messiah would be in charge of justifying the individuals of his transgressions and each one of the books of the Old Testament strengthens that confidence of the individuals of Israel who cling firmly to the Savior.

The works of ancient prophets who were affected by the Holy Spirit and who, over many hundreds of years, affirmed Christ and his future service. It also contains a record of the account of Abraham and his relatives, regarding Abraham and the agreement, or confirmation, that the Lord made with him and his children.

The first five books of the Old Testament were composed by Moses and they are: Genesis, the book of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and of course Deuteronomy. The beginning expresses the beginning of the earth, of humanity, of dialects and races, and of the beginning of the place of Israel.

The chronological books recount each of the events that happened to Israel. These books are: Joshua, the book of Judges, Ruth, 1st and 2nd Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and the book of Esther.

The remaining books contain a portion of the divine knowledge and artistic bent of the prophets. These are: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Songs and Lamentations of Solomon. The prophets counseled Israel regarding their indisciplines and affirmed the signs from God through obedience.

They foretold what happened to Christ, who could make up for the transgressions of individuals who committed sins, obtained the statutes, and experienced the Gospel. The books of the prophets are: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the book of Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, others like Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, the book of Zephaniah. The book of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi are taken into account.

The great majority of the books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew, although a part contains works in Aramaic, another language considered different at that time.

Old Testament books

They are known books that, due to their chronological significance, are classified in the pentateuch, the well-known historical, didactic and wise books. Each of them is explained below.


In other words, its meaning lies in the “five movements and histories”, it is the set framed by the five initial books of the Bible, which the convention credits to the Hebrew patriarch Moses. The Pentateuch is seen as accepted by every Christian admission and is a considered complete piece.

It is related to the individuals that in the Hebrew custom structure the Torah, the Law, the center of the Jewish religion. The five books that create it are:

  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Levitical
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy

It is thus contained in the Tanaj, which is seen as consecrated by all the Abrahamic religions, that is, Judaism, Christianity and of course Islam. (See Article: Prayer of thanks to God for a new day )

Despite the above and the fact that it is one of his three sacrosanct writings, Muslims accept that the content withstood criticism by Jewish and Christian recorders, so they do not fully trust some versions. While the Hebrews name them by the main notable expression of all, Christians have generally followed the terminology of the Greek form.

Compared to the class of so-called verifiable books of the Bible, the books of the Pentateuch systematically and chronologically describe the history and changes of the individuals of Israel. The five writings go from the creation of the Universe to the death of the patriarch and official Moses. In it appear the Ten Commandments of the book of Exodus and the 613 “burdens” of Leviticus.

It deals with God’s fortunate decision of individual Israelites as his chosen individuals. Incomprehensibly, this heavenly race would have intended the Israelites to make a harsh disaster settlement for their non-compliance with God.

Thus, it recounts the founding of a religious government, the granting of guaranteed land to its followers, the assumption of moral, common, and religious law, and the long adventure of the Hebrews to escape their servitude in Egypt and reach Canaan.

The Pentateuch or the Torah in its unique or Hebrew language shows us the decision of Israeli individuals for God, not to impede the world, but rather the way in which God frees the universe from excessive admiration. With the Pentateuch and the rest of the Tanakh, Abrahamic monotheism would appear around the fourth century BC. c.

Although it begins in an incredibly extensive way, the production of the world, as humanity develops, spreads, duplicates and contrasts, the Pentateuch begins to progressively limit each of the facts.

Not long after it begins, it becomes clear that it is limited, counting only the difficulties and achievements of the Israelites since their departure from Egypt and their entry into Canaan. The vast majority of these stories are completed as a structure for a skillful and careful work of the standards that God Himself gives to the Hebrews, which has earned the five books the label of “The Law”.

The creator

Moses is generally thought of as the creator of the Pentateuch. Usually, the structure of the Five Books has been attributed to Moses. So the Jews made it known from old-fashioned times, and similarly the leading Christians made it known. Assuming it is genuine, this would put its creation around the 15th century BC. C. or rather, around.

This reality began to be addressed from the seventeenth century. C., with the Enlightenment, and already by the eighteenth century there was an exceptionally strong “anti-Mosaic” development that revealed the origin of Moses. Throughout the meeting, but especially within explicit segments of each book, elaborate language and domain contrasts existed, while stories told more than once were clear.

The exemplary model is the way in which in specific parts of the content God is called by a name that is not the same as that used in other accounts such as the well-known division between Yahwist and Eloist conventions. In the event that one of them is used, the other is never referenced.

The two names of God are never mixed, in any of the five books. This recommends that the creators be multiple, that they use various things. According to this theory, his age would change as indicated by the sources between the 10th century BC.

Julius Wellhausen for his part detailed the supposed narrative theory, as indicated by four unique sources that are perceived in the content, which would have been the subject of the mixture that we know from the last editors, of the Babylonian imprisonment season.

Throughout the 20th century, translations and subsidiary options to Wellhausen have been created, with varying degrees of thoroughness, consistency, and logical power.

religious sense

The Pentateuch is the premise and guideline of Jewish life, and has been from the very date of its structure, since it clarifies the solid relationships of God with the world and with man. Each individual can discover in these books the unmistakable and direct clarification of the explanations behind his reality and the predetermination of it.

From the first starting point, the books not only achieve essential answers to the questions that torment man: Where did the world originate? Where did we originate from and where are we going?

For what reason do we endure and for what reason do we die?, but the specialized experts explain progressively and, in case you need them, increasingly complex, for example, the why of the unique association of God with Israel, the Covenant, equity, the Law and other decrees or promises.

The Pentateuch, likewise, is loaded with wonderful guarantees: it guarantees Adam and Eve the claim, and it also portends future occasions for Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

What suggests guarantees produces confidence, and that is the reason why it is not considered unplanned that the Pentateuch ends before the entrance of the Jews to the Promised Land.

As a book of expectations, it is necessary to leave the ideas open to the creative mind, the confidence and the religious intensity that will be fulfilled in different books of the Old Testament and for Christians in the radiant success of Jesus.


The beginning or Genesis is a Greek word, which means “starting point”. The main book of the Bible bears that name, since it administers the sources of the universe, of man and of the people of God.

The book of Genesis is separated into two large parts. The first is usually called “raw history”, since it shows a wide scene of the history of humanity, from the production of the world to Abraham, that is, the first chapters are spoken of.

The second recounts the most remote birthplaces of the individuals of Israel: it is the story of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the extraordinary forerunners of the Hebrew clans.

Towards the beginning, the figure of Joshua, one of Jacob’s sons, assures a specific meaning, since his gratitude towards him and his brothers had the option to settle in Egypt. The historical background of the Patriarchs closes with the declaration of the arrival of the Israelites to the guaranteed Land, whose satisfaction begins to be counted in the book of Exodus.

These two sections have eminent contrasts in the structure and framing of the writing, yet they are firmly related. The beginning returns first to the birthplaces of the world and of humanity.

At that point, through a progression of progressively limited lineages, he develops a complete progression between Adam, the father of stubborn humanity, and Abraham, the father of the chosen people. This genealogical connection emphasizes without fail that Abraham’s race was not a direct reality outside of human history.

The divine race was not a perpetual benefit for a lonely individual or a lonely country. In the event that God showed his inclination towards Abraham and his relatives, it was to understand a decision of salvation that includes each of the groups of people on earth.

In the last composition of the book of Genesis, components of the “Yahwist”, “Eloist” and “Religious” conventions were used. This last source has an unusual meaning in all the work, since it comprises the artistic base where different customs were integrated.

The main sections of Genesis offer a uniquely specific problem for present man. In them it is confirmed, for example, that God made the universe in the course of seven days, that he formed the man with clay and that with one of his ribs he framed the lady.

How to accommodate these announcements with the vision of the universe that science gives us? The problem is explained by the possibility that we consider that the book of Genesis does not try to clarify “deductively” the birthplace of the universe or the presence of man on earth.

With scholarly expressions and images from the time they were composed, these biblical writings welcome us to perceive God as the ultimate Creator and Lord of all things.

This recognition makes us see the world, not as the secondary effect of a visually impaired victim, but as nature made by God to recognize in it his Covenant of adoration with men. The fulfillment of that pact will be the “new paradise” and the “new earth”, initiated by the Resurrection of Christ, which is the beginning of another creation.

Israel’s trust in the inventive God found its most remarkable scholarly expression in the extraordinary letter of creation, found today at the beginning of the Bible. Throughout this story a reality is framed: the universe, with each of the wonders and riddles it contains, has been created by the only God.

Be that as it may, the story of the root of the universe is completed as a preamble to what comprises the main focus of the initial eleven parts of Genesis, specifically the dramatization of the human condition on the planet.

The different characters who chase each other: Adam and Eve, Cain and his relatives, the individuals who try to make the pinnacle of Babel, originally speak to all mankind, which means involving the situation of God, becoming their own and final standard conduct.

This case, instead of making man the owner of his destiny, brought durability to the world, broke the intimate ties between men, and caused groups of people to scatter. Within the structure of this story, God will understand his saving arrangement.

To portray this show, the propelled creators did not resort to conceptual details. They did so through a progression of aided stories, deeply emblematic in content, that bear the imprint of the time and way of life in which they were composed.

Consequently, when reading these writings, it is basic to recognize the reality discovered by God, which maintains its value and immutable fact, and its solid expression, which reflects the regular social base for each of the groups of people of the Old East.


The narratives of this second book move between two exact terrestrial foci: Egypt and Sinai. There occurred the occasions that made Israel the People of God: the takeoff from Egypt, the section of the Red Sea and the Sinai Alliance.

The memory of these occasions was always recorded in the memory of Israel, and became the very establishment of their trust. Subsequently, the book of Exodus occupies a notable place among each of the books of the Bible, and has been appropriately called the “Gospel” of the Old Testament.

The exodus can be divided into two main parts. The first recounts the work of the Lord, who heard the call of the Israelites subjugated in Egypt and acquired them after subjection.

The peak of this opening segment is Moses’ triumphant melody praising Israel’s freedom and the Lord’s triumph over the enemies of his people. The narrative of this heavenly activity is what gives the entire book its name, since “departure” means “departure.”

The back portrays the Lord’s experience with Israel at Mount Sinai. After showing his worship and power, God builds his Covenant with the Israelites and declares his law through Moses. Under this Covenant, Israel becomes the “elite estate” of the Lord and comprises a country blessed, that is, completely sanctified for him.

The Exodus stories are the national idea of ​​Israel. In their arrangement, social parties and festivals took on conclusive work.

The sacrament of Passover, most importantly, reviewed and renewed those incredible occasions of the past, so that all ages of the Israelites could restore the flight from Egypt and recharge the responsibility expected by the People of God at Sinai.

In this sense, the book of Exodus is not a “history” in the avant-garde sense of the word: it is a statement conceived of confidence, the recognition that Israel’s presence as a country is not created by men. Considered a formation of God in the last composition of the Book, it should be noted that components of the “Yahwist”, “Elohist” and “holy” convention were used, despite the different writings of the place of birth.

The incredible themes of Exodus are available throughout the Bible. The prophets allude to them to report another exodus and another Covenant more explicit than the first.

In addition, the New Testament introduces the ancient Exodus as a prefiguration of the redemptive work of Christ, the genuine “Passover”, who fixed with his blood “an increasingly fantastic Covenant”. The exodus is the pattern for all demonstrations of God, particularly baptism.

It is estimated that after the death of Joseph, the Hebrews stayed in Egypt for about 300 years. Their rapid development provoked the pharaoh’s response and motivation for him to kill them. That’s the reason why he abused them and didn’t let them out.

In the midst of the abuse, Abraham’s relatives cried out to the Lord, and the Lord picked up his promise and raised up a deliverer. It is Moses who will have an unmistakable place in the rest of the Pentateuch.

Moses awaits and satisfies his central goal, not without incredible challenges. He “wanted to share the sufferings of the People of God, instead of appreciating the transient joys of evil deeds, and he stood his ground as if he were seeing the Unseen.” Later, he confronted the pharaoh to request the freedom of the people from him.

In that battle, Pharaoh typifies petty interests that contradict the opportunity of God’s children. Moses, again, is the model of the individuals who fight for that opportunity. The dramatization with which such a battle is displayed, particularly in the record of the diseases, clearly shows the ultimate triumph of God.


Greek-speaking Jews called the third book of the Pentateuch Leviticus. This name gives a genuinely satisfying idea of ​​its content, since it comprises only the ceremonial medicines that the ministers of Levi’s clan should try.

The opening segment of Leviticus is engaged in the custom of penance. At that time comes the majestic for the inauguration of the clerics, and the law on the unadulterated and the unclean, which ends with the custom of the incomparable Day of Atonement.

The first chapters contain the so-called “Holiness Law”, which closes with a progression of gifts and rewards. As a beginning, the conditions for the rescue of people, creatures and merchandise sanctified to the Lord are decided.

Leviticus has a place in conjunction with “religious” convention. Consequently, his exhaustive and exact style overloads with specialized terms and redundancies. This is normal for all cabal laws, which extend to the smallest niceties to ensure the adequacy of rituals.

Although the Book obtained its authoritative structure in a network known as post-exilic, that is, a part of the components that contain it include an ancient source. Food denials and guidelines regarding virtue have signs of a raw time, loaded with taboos and mysterious origins.

The stylization of the incomparable Day of Atonement compares an extremely lofty idea of ​​evil with an ancient ritual.

As in the rest of the Pentateuch, the laws are confined within a system of accounts. In any case, in Leviticus that system is exceptionally simple, and often boils down to an ordinary recipe, making all Israelite love dependent on a God-given request to Moses at Sinai.

The reading of Leviticus inevitably leaves the feeling that its content has a place with a distant and unusual culture for modern man.

This is valid, but in its authentic setting, the Book verifies an exceptionally deep feeling of heavenly awesome quality and concern to frame a blessed people, sanctified by the love of genuine God in the midst of different countries.

The old Law was only “the shadow of the future products”, and the main Sacrifice of Christ caused the entire antiquated formal temple to expire.

Be that as it may, claims for holiness and virtue in God’s administration remain consistently legitimate, and the reference to Leviticus is critical to understanding numerous entries in the New Testament that discuss Christ and his redemptive sacrifice.

For Israel, with respect to every religion, the demonstration of unsurpassed love, the most normal and unrestricted expression of acknowledgment due to the absolute power of God, is “penance”.

By offering penance, man strips himself of something significant, of a vital sustenance for his life, and gives it to the Lord over the flame in full sacrifice. The smoke that rises from the offering resembles a link between paradise and earth.

Penance can be offered in thanksgiving, or to ask the Lord for some gain. Likewise, penance for transgression is lost, where the blood satisfies a sin or a bad deed.

On different occasions, only part of the unfortunate victim is consumed; the other part is to participate in a sacred meal, thus establishing an obligation of communion with heaven, from which quality and life come.

The Israelite ceremonial strips the penances of each mysterious component and presents the individual point of view. Be that as it may, these ceremonies, similar to all activities or rituals, are presented to end simply in external practices, without a soul.

Israel commonly caused these events, and the prophets needed to raise their voices to remember that God abhors the smoke of penance, when the fairness and reliability of his instructions are deficient. In this way, the insurmountable sacrifice is that of Christ, who recognized “by submission the passing and disappearance of the cross.”


The title Numbers incompletely reflects the content of the fourth book of the Pentateuch, but it does present, in any case, one of its qualities: the preoccupation with numerical subtleties.

This concern is shown, among other things, in the two censuses recorded in the Book, in the guidelines on penances and in the instructions for the transmission of the crown jewels and for the division of the domain around the Levitical urban areas.

The Jews of the Hebrew language called this book “in the wilderness”, in light of the fact that these are the most significant expressions of the royal section. This title invokes another of his characteristic themes: the Israelites’ trek through the desert, from Sinai to the periphery of the Promised Land.

The Book of Numbers gives the impression of being a large number of heterogeneous components, with no coherent association. Regardless of everything, it is conceivable to establish a specific request, taking into account the land system that includes:

  • Sinai’s takeoff is established with a record of individuals and contributions displayed at the Sanctuary devotional event.
  • After praising the subsequent Passover, the Israelites leave Sinai and land at Kadesh, where they make a terrible effort to enter Canaan from the south.
  • After spending a long time in Kadesh, they refocus and reach the steppes of Moab, before Jericho.

Surrounding these accounts, various legitimate and ritual arrangements are mixed, which complete the enactment of Sinai or establish the foundation of Israel in Canaan.

In the book of Numbers, the conventions “Yahwist”, “Elohist” and “holy” return. The latter is the one that gave a complete structure to the whole work and imprinted the unconventional soul of it.

It is useless to search in this aggregation of ancient conventions for a precise and methodical record of certainties. The desert time convention is piecemeal and limited to a couple of scenes. Also, the story is viewed from a religious point of view.

It will probably demonstrate God’s gracious provision for his people, despite the murmurings and upheavals of the equivalent.

During their trek through the wilderness, Israel experienced their first encounters as God’s people. There the motley mass of criminals who had come out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses began to reckon with their normal predetermination.

At the time when the end of time arrived, the introduction of the new People of God was also related to the desert. There he lectured and sanctified John the Baptist through the water, to establish the method for the Lord. (See Article: Christian prayer for a terminally ill person )

In addition, there Jesus “was guided by the Spirit”, to plan to satisfy his main objective of “initiator and finisher of our trust” Israel is already preparing to leave Sinai, the Holy Mountain of their experience with God.

However, before jumping, the registration of the clans is completed and Moses complements the representation with certain arrangements that are identified with the Sanctuary, the religion and the Levites. In this sense, the book of Numbers takes up the plot of the account that had been put on hold towards the Exodus part of the deal.

The People of God appears here as an efficient armed force, gathered around their managers and their pennants. Be that as it may, the most important thing is the Assembly of the Lord, a ritualistic network gathered in concentric circles around the Sanctuary. The Lord is available in his midst and shows his quality through the “cloud”.

Israel’s desert trek has all the trappings of a serious parade: the “cloud” gives the takeoff request and the Ark of the Covenant, the obvious position of the Lord’s royalty, advances at the head of the troop.

This introduction gives us an extremely admired perspective on the number and association of the Israelites in the time of the wilderness. In fact, the meeting that left Egypt under the leadership of Moses was far from framing as varied and small an undertaking as was suspected from time to time.

In any case, this romantic introduction, which the holy convention proposes as a standard and model for Israel, has a profound meaning: the People of God is and must be a network of progress, without an immutable dwelling place.

Your association and the manner in which you must pursue it are independent of no one else, however, by the God who freed you from bondage and blessed you for his stewardship. This applies similarly to the Church, the People of the New Covenant.


The book of Deuteronomy is an expression from the Greek birthplace, meaning “second law.” Such assignment communicates, to a certain extent, the content of the fifth book of the Pentateuch, since this, rather than a code of laws in the strict sense, is a long and lively impulse intended to “remind” Israel of the meaning and prerequisites of the pact.

Deuteronomy is organized as a progression of speeches delivered by Moses to the Israelites before they entered Canaan.

This abstract structure is clarified by the conditions that offer ascending to the creation of the Book. From antiquated occasions, the Levitical ministers delayed the action of Moses, seriously transmitting in the formal festivals the Covenant of the Lord with his chosen people.

In these festivals, they were not forced to always repeat a set of laws, however, they finished and renewed it to react to new circumstances and needs.

In this way, the laws contained in the conventional codes of Israel were advanced with unique components of importance, which were later recorded in the deuteronomic enactment.

Among these commitments, the law on the solidarity of the Shrine, the criteria for perceiving genuine prophets and serious solutions against adoring admiration deserve unique consideration. This was planned to balance the evil impact that the Baal religion and Canaanite factions had on Israel’s trust.

The Deuteronomy piece underwent some phases. Its raw composition can be placed in the 8th century BC. C., in the Levitical conditions of the Northern Kingdom. After the pulverizing of Samaria, these meetings took refuge in Judah and the Book was kept in the archives of the Temple in Jerusalem.

In the year 622 a. C, King Josiah had arranged the Temple, and there was a “book of the Covenant”, which was examined in the sight of the lord and gave a new driving force to the religious change initiated by him. This “book of the Covenant” was undoubtedly Deuteronomy, despite the fact that it was in a shorter structure than today.

From that moment on, the Deuteronomic enactment became the subject of ordinary contemplation and gave a first request to decipher the entire history of Israel. In this way, the first work was finished and advanced with new commitments, until it turned out to be a piece of the Pentateuch.

Among all the works of the Old Testament, Deuteronomy stands out for its curious style. His language is serious, but immediate, warm and concerned with making boundless devotion to the Lord.

It is a style that needs to speak mostly to the heart. The eager reiteration of specific words and turns of phrase gives the whole work a surprising influential power.

The regular entry from “you” to “you” is another normal for Deuteronomic style. This rotation is a method of speech to scrutinize the members of the audience: the “you” directs less towards the people specifically than towards the internal voice of the network, in which each one must speak and measure its own duty.

Deuteronomy draws a program of life for Israel, awakened by the proclamation of the Prophets, in the crafty deeds and recorded customs of the Pentateuch, from male-centric occasions to the section on the guaranteed Land.

The God shown here is certainly not a cold and unapproachable holiness, however, he is the forgiving God who is close to his people and discovers his Law, as he adores him and hopes to be cherished with similar power.

In that way, Deuteronomy denotes an achievement that makes a course for the conclusive revelation of God in the New Testament, where the Apostle Saint John affirms: “God is love, and he who dwells in worship lives in God, and God tolerates.” .

Didactic Books

When referring to the didactic books, they are recognized from the old testament, the book of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs. Be that as it may, there are also individuals who include other books, however, these are increasingly unaccepted, they are not the genuine authoritative manual for the Old Testament.


Due to its extraordinary beauty and human value, the book of Job has an unmistakable place, within the Bible, but in addition to being among the perfect works of art of inclusive writing, its creator was very familiar with the cunning of Israel and the Old East.

He knew the prophets thoroughly from the rest of them, particularly the “Admissions” of Jeremiah and some works of Ezekiel, and had inquired with the Psalms that were sung in the Jerusalem Temple. The outings broadened his experience, and he most likely experienced some time in Egypt.

More importantly, he felt in his very fabric the endless problem of malevolence, which emerges in all its acuteness when fairness endures, while evil appreciates prosperity.

This work was composed towards the beginning of the 5th century BC. CC, and to create it, the creator depended on an old record of old Palestinian stories, which told of the terrible sufferings of an honorable man, whose dedication to God in the midst of trial earned him a remarkable reward.

This well-known legend comprises the preamble and the epilogue of the Book. By placing his character in a distant nation, outside the margins of Israel, the creator proposes that the dramatization of Job influences all men in a similar way.

The book of Job cannot be understood without considering the usual education of the “cunning” Israelites about heavenly retaliation. As that instruction indicates, the great and terrible activities of men essentially obtained in this world the deserved reward or discipline.

This was a clever result of trust in God’s fairness, when there was still no idea of ​​retaliation after death. However, the opportunity came when this convention began to be untenable, since it was enough to open our eyes to reality and see that fairness and happiness do not usually go together in today’s life. Furthermore, if not all suffering is the result of a bad deed, how can it be cleared up?

Thinking of the tribulations of Job, a fair man who languishes for no apparent reason, he examines the intelligence of old-fashioned “cunning men” and reduces it to its righteous limits.

That intelligence tried to understand everything: great and evil, joy and mishap, life and death. This desire was undoubtedly genuine, but it would generally underestimate God’s dominion, opportunity, and unimaginable puzzle. In the Lord’s censure of Job’s companions, he verifiably rejects all knowledge that sets itself up as an absolute standard and attempts to lock God into the classes of human equity.

The central character of this book came to find the substance of the genuine God through misery. For this, he needed to surrender his own view of his and his case to be seen as reasonable. There is no other approach for the Christian, yet this is illuminated by the message of the cross, which gives a whole new meaning to the enigma of human agony.


“Psalm” originates from a Greek action word meaning “to play a stringed instrument,” and was initially used to assign the melodies joined by that instrument. The latter was designated “Psalter”, but later the name lost its unique importance and came to be used as an equivalent word for Book of Psalms.

The Old Testament contains several delightful messages with qualities like those of the Psalms. The famous Song of Moses, the psalm of triumph sung by Deborah and Barak, David’s requiem for the demise of Saul and Jonathan, and Jonah’s grievance, are a part of the numerous models to which he can refer.

Be that as it may, Israel’s cabal fortune and religious verse is found at a very basic level in the Psalter. A Jewish convention, generally scattered in the Church, credits David with most of the Psalms.

This attribution depends on the declaration of the recorded books of the Old Testament, which refer again and again to David’s charming and melodic virtuoso.

However, the many individual and national circumstances reflected in the Psalms, their variety of artistic styles and types, as well as their cozy association with the ritualistic existence of Israel, prevent us from attesting that the Psalter was created by a solitary creator or the Result of a different time.

Historical books

The authentic books in the Old Testament deal with the disposition of the individuals of Israel, the outcasts in Babylon, and the arrival in Jerusalem. In these books we discover the dividers that fell at Jericho, the rule of David, we meet the prophet Elijah and a progression of derogatory rulers.

The extraordinary exercise is that God remains faithful to his obligations and anticipates the submission and reliability of his relatives. This arrangement of books in the Bible is after the pentateuch and before the enchanting books.


Of the considerable number of Israelites who left Egypt during the Exodus, only Joshua and Caleb touched base in the guaranteed land. God uses Joshua to defeat Canaan. Joshua was a man who led people to their new home and to God’s love. The book of Joshua was composed between later years.


Despite the fact that the Israelites had their own territory and their own way of life as individuals of God, they did not have a ruler since God led them.

This book contains the account of 12 men and the leading lady, Deborah, who were judges or pioneers of individuals in times of incredible preliminaries and persecutions. The Judges were made up around 1050-1000 BC. C. potentially by Samuel.


Ruth’s story is known for the incredible kinship between her and her relative Naomi. This book can be considered as a progress between the phase of the judges of Israel and the government. Ruth and Naomi were distinguished among the clans of Israel during the season of the judges.

Ruth’s own story closes with her union with Boaz. The inevitable ruler David left his ascendancy. Ruth was potentially composed by Samuel between 1050-500 BC. c.

Samuel 1 and 2

Samuel was the last judge of Israel. In 1 Samuel we see how this incredible prophet committed himself to God from his youth and how God used him to lead individuals during the rule of his first lord, Saul.

In 2 Samuel, David is blessed as lord of Judah by Samuel. The subtleties of his kingdom, his own life, the discipline he received for his misdeeds, yet furthermore God’s vows for him and Israel are compounded here.

Kings 1 and 2

David passes away in the main sections of 1 Kings and his son Solomon takes his place. We meet the prophet Elijah, who persistently lectured on the atonement to a defiant people. Israel became a separate country.

The lords of Israel and Judah generally did not pursue God’s will and sometimes led individuals to excessive admiration. The results were no joke. In 2 Kings Israel falls under the control of Babylon.

Chronicles 1 and 2

These two books were composed by the minister Ezra after the outcasts of individuals to Babylon. His goal was to maintain the character of Israel as individuals of God while they were abroad. The two books complement 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings. They were composed somewhere in the range of 425 and 400 BC.


In this book, Israel is marginalized and returns to Jerusalem and Ezra guides them to modify the sanctuary. In the last part, the individuals atoned for their misdeeds. Ezra and Nehemiah were composed much later in the range of 538 and 475 BC. c.


Like Ezra, this book is about the efforts of the people to rebalance themselves in Jerusalem. Specifically, God uses Nehemiah to order the recreation of the city dividers.


This is the main book of the Bible that does not make direct reference to God. From the occasions we can see that God was certainly present. Esther was a young Jewess whose family lived abroad in Persia.

She was chosen as the ruler of Persia and was in the right position to intercede when there was a risk of killing every single Israelite. Convention says that her uncle Mordecai was the person who probably composed this book in 465 BC. c.

Poetic Books

They are called books of knowledge, some know them as idyllic books or cunning books, they are established as a subset of Jewish books or the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. In the form of the Septuagint, these books number seven, while in the Hebrew Canon used by Rabbinic, Karaite, and Messianic Judaism, and by Protestant, Anglican, and Restorationist Christianity, there are only five of them.

old testament prophets

It is essential to show that not most of the Prophets of Israel appear primarily in the incredible later segment of the Hebrew Bible.

Within it, and as indicated by Jewish custom, the distinctive scriptural figures are also seen as prophets whose story appears in the main area of ​​the Hebrew Bible, including: the prophet Moses, Aaron, Miriam or in its third segment as Job , Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah and other annexes.


Moses is an important figure for the Abrahamic religions, where he is revered as a prophet, official and profound pioneer. He was a Hebrew who grew up as an Egyptian ruler. In Hebrew his name is Moshe, he is the most important prophet of Judaism. He is also a major prophet in Christianity, Islam, and the Baha’is and other Abrahamic religions.

The central references about Moses are found in the Holy Scriptures of monotheism Torah, Old Testament and Koran. For Judaism, Moses is the man gifted by God to free the Hebrew individuals from slavery in Egypt and lead the exodus to the guaranteed land, being in this sense the main prophet and administrator of Israel.

According to biblical custom, Moses was a relative of Levi, passed on the Law to individual Hebrews, and set the stage for Israelite brotherhood and love. The Judeo-Christian convention credits Moses with the creation of the first five books of Scripture or the Pentateuch.

As for extra-biblical material evidence about Moses, archaeologists need it. Outside of the structure of conviction, the absence of elements that justify or even evaluate the legitimacy of the writings of the Scriptures, creates a variety of theories and contents.

Usually, the beginning of the name Moses is identified with the thought of water, both in Egyptian and Hebrew sources. In the ancient Egyptian language, the sum Moses had the estimation of “generated by” (transmitted by); simultaneously, the source of the starting point or creation used to come before itself.

Moses at first would mean “carried by the waters”, due to the way in which the Hebrew baby was found in them, with the aim that the waters of the Nile River were translated as his birthplace.

The depiction of the Book of Exodus in general will recommend a comparable thought, where the demonstration of bidding ascends to that of saving: “And when the fellow Moses grew up, she, his natural mother, took him to Pharaoh’s daughter, who restrained him.” , and he called him Moses, saying: “Since I brought him up out of the waters”.

From this, the importance of “saved from the waters” is generally attributed to the name of Moses. In the record of him known as Jewish Antiquities, the Judeo-Roman antiquarian Flavius ​​Josephus reaffirms what was communicated by the Bible, also going back to the Egyptian historical background, to finally affirm that the name of Moses means “saved from the waters”.

As a name, Moses is identified with the thought of water and not only in the inactive sense, since the custom of the Hebrew individuals from whom he was “saved” caused a friend to need him and in that case by the waters he “transmitted” he discovered his deliverer (that is, the one who freed him from bondage in Egypt).

Consequently, the name Moses in Hebrew is articulated Moshe, a functional structure that considers both the pioneer of the Israelites and the one who will act as their delegate before Yahweh and, finally, give them the Law.

Moses is an emissary of the perfect will, and is consequently understood as the purveyor or purveyor of both Israelite individual opportunity and “the ten unbelievable statutes.”


As references in the Bible indicate, Daniel was a member of the clan of Judah, held hostage in Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar’s pulverizing of Jerusalem.

As the Book of Daniel indicates, he was one of Nebuchadnezzar’s hirelings, for whom he became a lawyer after intriguing the ruler with his clarification of a fantasy. He was later thrown, as a result of his trust, into the lion’s den, from which he developed solidly, thus demonstrating to King Balthasar the intensity of Yahweh.

The figure of Daniel must be understood at the verifiable minute his book was composed: during the rule of Antiochus Epiphanes, when Jewish culture and religion were compromised.

It is a model story, demonstrating a man’s dedication to his God under the most troublesome conditions, while foretelling, as the main case of prophetically calamitous scripture, the party of agreement clears the way for the kingdom of God.


Hadassah, also called Esther, was a prophetess of the Jewish Tanakh and the Christian Old Testament. She was a wonderful Jewish lady who, being a lazy and cuddled child of her cousin Mordecai, she became the ruler of Persia and Media when she married King Ahasuerus. Her story is told in the Book of Esther and she is praised at the Purim gala.

As the Book of Esther indicates, this young woman with Hebrew roots was called Hadassah, which means “myrtle or pure.” When she turned out to be a part of the ruler’s collection of lovers, at Mordecai’s suggestion, she chose to use the name Esther.

This new name is perhaps obtained from a different method of calling the unknown (since the name is close to the base of the word that shows the beautiful and the pure. Different researchers make it come from the name of the goddess Ishtar, but it clearly follows that this argument has not been confirmed.

The importance of the name Esther gets from the Biblical name of the Assyro-Babylonian cause implying star, star. A Targum of Hebrew custom says that she was the most enchanting “night star.”

Esther was the daughter of Abihail, of the clan of Benjamin, one of the individuals who comprised the Kingdom of Judah, and whose world class knew how to banish in Babylon, to obtain, after a time, the consent to return to their country through a Persian decree.

The Bible says, despite the procedure through which Esther progresses to become a ruler, the strength of mind and trust she has in Yahweh, in the need to forgive her individual Jews, regardless of relinquishing her status as ruler, already despite expressing his affection for his own life and his partner.

Esther appears in the Bible as a lady represented by her confidence, boldness, concern for her relatives, judiciousness, poise, accommodation, insight, and security. She is faithful and respectful to her cousin Mordecai, and plans to fulfill her obligation to speak to the Jewish people and achieve salvation.

In Jewish convention it is seen as an instrument of God’s will to prevent the annihilation of individual Jews, to ensure and guarantee harmony during the outcast.


Samuel in Hebrew: “He who tunes with God”, “the name of God” was, as the content of the Scriptures indicates, a Hebrew prophet, military pioneer and last judge of Israel. According to the first book of Samuel, the prophet had a place with the Levi tribe.

His mother, Ana, was devastated and had a wonderful son whom Samuel called and blessed the Lord, leaving him in the shelter of Shiloh to be considered by the priest Eli. It was he who chose the main ruler of the Israelites, Saul, who controlled the Kingdom of Israel during the time of the reunited government, being the ancestor of David.

In Jewish custom he has an extraordinary weight, to the point that the Talmud declares that this prophet was worth as much as Moses and Aaron. As this custom indicates, after the disappearance of Moses and Joshua, there was perplexity regarding specific laws, particularly regarding the restriction of marriage between Ammonites, Moabites, and Israelites.


It is the name of the successor of Moses, whose meaning is the recovery of Jesus of salvation. He is an established prophet of the Scriptures, whose life is described in the Book of Joshua. He was chosen by God to succeed Moses as the pioneer of the Israelites during the victory of Canaan.

Joshua overcame the vast majority of the guaranteed land domain and passed it on among the twelve tribes of Israel, possibly occurring around 1230-1210 BC. c.

As the Scriptures indicate, Joshua was the successor to Moses in the military crusades completed by the Hebrews in the triumph of Canaan. He was the son of Nun, from the clan of Ephraim. He was conceived in Egypt and was probably around the same age as Caleb, with whom he normally associates.

He was interested in the occasions described in Exodus as the helper of Moses. He was the administrator of the Israelites in the fight against the Amalekites at Rephidin. He became Moses’ lieutenant and sat next to him in the middle when he went up Mount Sinai to get the Ten Commandments.

Furthermore, he was one of the twelve pilgrims sent by Moses to the place known as Canaan, and the only one, along with Caleb, to bring back an enriching report.

His unique name was Hosea or Hosea, and Moses named him Joshua, whose meaning in Hebrew is Yahweh recoveries or Yahweh of salvation, and in truth Yahweh chooses him as an instrument to complete his agreement to overcome the guaranteed land.


Hebrew prophet who is credited with the composition of the homonymous book of the Old Testament (Book of Ezekiel), or nothing else, a large part of it. (See Article: spiritual liberation )

According to biblical convention, he was the son of Buzzi, a clergyman from Jerusalem. At the time that the Babylonian lord Nebuchadnezzar crushed Jerusalem, Ezekiel persecuted its occupants into exile from him to Babylon.

According to the generally recognized sequence, the first time Ezekiel foretells is between 592 B.C. C. In the first of these stages, he reported the early elimination of Jerusalem, due to the multiplication of treachery and the spread of unapproved rituals.

In the second, he declared the rebuilding of the place of Israel through brokerage with stunning elegance and urged the marginalized to leave the diaspora and return to the land from which they came.

Composed of 48 parts, the Book of Ezekiel begins with a massive vision of creatures, of brilliant seraphim, guiding the vehicle on which God’s righteous position rests. This incredible creation, difficult to understand, was repeated by Saint John the Evangelist in his Apocalypse.

The chosen one, terrified, falls to the ground and in this position receives the request to go “in search of the offspring of Israel, wolves in sheep’s clothing and genuine scorpions that immunize toxic substances for other people, disapproved and cruel.”

Ezequiel remains silent for seven days in his house. After this time, he hears an inner voice that discovered the duty of life and the step that weighs him down since he got the mission. Furthermore, here he became the sentinel of his relatives, Israel’s subscriber to God.

To the surprise of the exiled Hebrews in Babylon, he satisfies these unique manifestations with an expressive stillness that symbolizes the terrible cataclysms that dominate individuals who break trust.


It means “dove”, in Latin Ionas, or in Arabic, he was a prophet of Yahweh, in the Old Testament and of the Jewish Tanaj; He is the fifth of the minor prophets of the Neviim, son of Amitai. In the Koran, Jonah is also one of the prophets of Islam.

According to the Bible, the Tanach and the Koran, Jonah was a prophet. In satisfaction of the expression of Yahweh, spread through the mouth of Jonah, King Jeroboam II of Israel achieved a positive achievement in reestablishing “Israel’s breaking point, from the purpose of the passage of Hamath to the ocean of the Arabah (the Sea of ​​Israel). Dead)” .

So it seems that Jonah was a prophet in the kingdom of ten clans during the rule of Jeroboan II. He is a similar individual whom Yahweh appointed to announce the judgment against Nineveh, and in this line he thinks of the writer of the homonymous book of scriptures.


Jeremiah was a Hebrew prophet, son of the clergyman Hilkiah. Jeremiah lived in Judah, Babylon, and Egypt. He was contemporary with Ezekiel and before Daniel. He is the writer of the volume of the Bible known as the Book of Jeremiah. He is credited with creating the books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations.

Designed by Jeremiah, the prophet was to call to contrition the kingdom of Judah and, for the most part, the rulers Josiah, Jehoiakim (also called Jehoiakim), Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah, due to Yahweh’s enforced discipline that they would be defeated by the Jews. Chaldeans if they did not turn their hearts to God.

His life, as a prophet, was described as suffering with an immovable backbone from the different imperatives and accusations that he endured because of these rulers and the head of Israel, from scourging to being abandoned in lakes or thrown into prisons.

Most of his predictions were written down in glances by the engraver Baruch, son of Neriah, who went with him on a decent piece of his central goal.

With his predictions about the intrusion of the “groups of people from the north” (Babylon), he proved the governmental problems and agnosticism of the rulers of Judea, Jehoiakim and Zedekiah and declared Yahweh’s discipline for savagery and social corruption, which broke the collusion with God: They speak of harmony, but there is no harmony, he composed.


Also called Jedidiah, he was by the Bible the third and last ruler of the reunited kingdom of Israel, that is, before the division of the Israelite region into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Son of King David, he ruled a wide region for almost four decades, possibly somewhere in the range of 965 and 928 BC.

During Solomon’s rule, the primary Temple in Jerusalem was assembled and he is credited with creating the scriptures titled Book of Ecclesiastes, Book of Proverbs, and Song of Songs.

Solomon was the second of the children born to King David and Bathsheba. In the Bible, the prophet Nathan advises David that God has requested the death of his first son as discipline for the transgression of the ruler, who had sent Uriah, Bathsheba’s wife, to her death to marry her mate (2 Samuel 12:14).

“You have reviled the adversaries of God” (actually: ‘you have despised the statutes of God’) After seven days of petitioning and fasting, David received the updates on the death of his son and married Bathsheba, who this time remained pregnant.

Solomon’s story is told in the First Book of Kings, and in the Second Book of Chronicles. He succeeded his father, David, in the position of authority in Israel around 970 BC. C. his father chose him as successor to the orders of Bathsheba and Nathan, despite the fact that he had more young men established with other women.

He was raised to the position of royalty before his father’s demise, as his relative Adonijah had declared himself lord.

Adonijah was later executed at Solomon’s request, and the minister Abiathar, his supporter, was removed from his position, in which he was replaced by Zadok. General Joab was also killed without regard to the refuge privilege of the sanctuary.

From the scriptural record it follows, by all accounts, that in Solomon’s rise to control a cleansing occurred in the main units of the kingdom, who were supplanted by individuals faithful to the new lord. (See Article: Prayer to sleep well without nightmares )


In the Old Testament, different characters are shown with an outstanding participation and teaching. Some of them are specified below:


Abraham, initially Abram, is the first of the three patriarchs of Judaism. The story of him is told in all the time-honored writings of the Abrahamic religions and he takes on significant work, for example, trust in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The scriptural narrative revolves around the themes of the successors and the land. Abraham is called by God to leave, Terah, and settle in the land initially given in Canaan, but now God guarantees Abraham and his relatives.

There are some applicants who could acquire the land after Abraham, however they are all fired by Isaac, his son with his stepsister Sarah.

Abraham buys a tomb (the Tomb of the Patriarchs) in Hebron to be Sarah’s tomb, thus establishing his right to the land; in the second era, his beneficiary Isaac marries his own relatives, and then forbids the Canaanites from any legacy.

Abraham later marries Keturah and has six more children, however, at his demise, when covered alongside Sarah, it is Isaac who gets “every one of Abraham’s wares,” while different children get “endowments.” ”.

Abraham’s narrative cannot be precisely identified with any particular moment, despite the fact that the Patriarchal Age, along with the Exodus and the time of the judges, is widely perceived to be a late artistic development not identified with a particular time in history.


Biblical character in his ability chosen by God to sustain humanity after the flood, Noah appears within the biblical convention as the beginning of all the races of the world, through his sons Shem, Ham and Japheth, and as leader of the lineage Semitic.

According to Genesis, Noah was the son of Lamech and had a place in the ninth age after Adam. Respectable and devout patriarch, when God decided to eliminate the contamination of men on earth by sending the flood, he chose Noah to defend the final destiny of humanity.

After realizing what would happen, God ordered Noah to work according to his guidelines an ark equipped to glide over the waters and keep in it various species of creatures. Finally, Noah, his better half, and his three sons with his wives entered the ark and the flood resulted, which continued for forty days.

When the rain stopped, God established a partnership with Noah and his sons “so that the waters of the flood no longer eradicate any substance, so that there is no more flood to crush the earth.”

Likewise, he recharged the forced statutes in the creation, with two varieties: men could kill and eat creatures, and the man who murdered another would be rejected by his peers.

Later, Noé, the main rancher, coldly found the wine and, tasting it, “became alcoholic and was exposed in his store.” As Shem and Japheth reassured him deferentially, Ham ridiculed his father. At that time, Noah reviled his son, Canaan, for being a captive of Shem’s heritage, the Semites, from whose trunk the individuals of Israel would grow.

On this premise, the Israelites generally guaranteed their right to reach Canaan (Palestine and Phoenicia). In the Koran, the holy book of Muslims, there is also the figure of Noah, whom Islam thinks of as one of the prophets.


He is the second of the patriarchs of the individuals of Israel; son of the main patriarch of the Hebrews Abraham, who led the movement of the Hebrews from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Levant, and his partner Sara.

Her name means “it will make you laugh” and is due to the humor caused in her mother by the statement of a traveler who had made it easier for her to have a child, since “given her age, she could not accept that she was pregnant”.

As the scriptural record indicates, Sarah was 90 years old and Abraham was 100 years old at the time. In biblical custom, Isaac’s otherworldly birth was a consequence of Yahweh’s promise to Abraham.

That fixed the decision of Jewish individuals as beneficiaries of the amazing law; The result of that contract would be circumcision, whose typical name in Hebrew actually means “agreement.”

In this sense, the book of Amos recommends that Israel was one of Isaac’s names; However, most scriptural analysis thinks this applies to his son Jacob. Jacob was one of two twin sons of Isaac.

Adam and Eve

In the Abrahamic religions, Adam and Eve were the main man and the main lady to populate the earth. They were made by God on the sixth day of creation.

As the Bible and the Koran indicate, Adam was made first, and God, seeing only him, concluded that he needed a friend made from a rib of man. The first young men of the couple were Cain, Abel and later Set

God put Adam and Eve, to demonstrate their loyalty and obedience gave them the order to eat each of the products of the nursery tree, apart from one, called the tree of the information of good and evil (however, he denied them eating from the tree of life) telling Adam and Eve that in case they ate the products from it, they would kick the bucket.

The serpent exploited this unique standard, and in this way attracted and misdirected Eve; that she ate the prohibited organic product. (See Article: Prayer to succeed at work )

Differences with the New Testament

Although the Bible is a collected book, there are contrasts between the Old and New Testaments. From various perspectives, they are reciprocal. The Old Testament is essential.

The New Testament expands on that premise with more divine revelation. The Old Testament constructs rules that are considered illustrative of New Testament realities.

The Old Testament contains numerous predictions that are fulfilled in the New Testament. The Old Testament gives the historical background of a people. (See Article: Short Christian Prayer )

The New Testament focuses on an individual. The Old Testament demonstrates God’s fury against transgression (with glances at its beauty); The New Testament demonstrates God’s elegance towards the wicked (with a look at his outstanding attitude).

The Old Testament predicts a Messiah, and the New Testament discovers who the Messiah is. The Old Testament records the transmission of God’s Law, and the New Testament demonstrates how Jesus the Messiah fulfilled that Law.

In the Old Testament, God’s dealings are basically with his chosen individuals, the Jews; In the New Testament, God’s dealings are primarily with his congregation. The physical gifts guaranteed under the Old Covenant offer an approach to the deep favors under the New Covenant.

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